Tuesday, 21 January 2014

Solar Flares

Fig 1

Bibliography


Detecting Solar Flares

UPI, C. (2013, OCTO 30). Sun emits solar flare, fourth this week, as activity increases. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2013/10/30/Sun-emits-solar-flare-fourth-this-week-as-activity-increases/UPI-35781383167617/

(UPI, 2013)


forum, A. (2014, Janu 21). Looking for solar flare detection project ideas. Retrieved from http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=76882.0;wap2

(forum, 2014)

watson-gyro, C. (2014, Janu 21). Solar storm detection. Retrieved from http://www.watson-gyro.com/aps/solar-storm-magnetic-field-magnetometer.html

(watson-gyro, 2014)

Geller, L. (2014, Janu 21). Thoughts on a proton precession magnetometer design - a proton magnetometer project. build an earth's field magnetometer.. Retrieved from http://www.gellerlabs.com/PMAG%20Articles.htm

(Geller, 2014)

SCI-NEWS, C. (2013, JULY 09). Scientists detect antimatter particles in solar flares. Retrieved from http://www.sci-news.com/physics/science-antimatter-positron-solar-flares-01206.html

(SCI-NEWS, 2013)

Monday, 20 January 2014

21st Century Problems (Solar Flares) √ (chosen)

Solar flares
Solar flares produce high energy particles and radiation that are dangerous to living organisms. However, at the surface of the Earth we are well protected from the effects of solar flares and other solar activity by the Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere. The most dangerous emissions from flares are energetic charged particles
The x-rays from flares are stopped by our atmosphere well above the Earth's surface. They do disturb the Earth'sionosphere, however, which in turn disturbs some radio communications. Along with energetic ultraviolet radiation, they heat the Earth’s outer atmosphere, causing it to expand. This increases the drag on Earth-orbiting satellites, reducing their lifetime in orbit. Also, both intense radio emission from flares and these changes in the atmosphere can degrade the precision of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements.
The energetic particles produced at the Sun in flares seldom reach the Earth. When they do, the Earth's magnetic field prevents almost all of them from reaching the Earth's surface. The small number of very high energy particles that does reach the surface does not significantly increase the level of radiation that we experience every day.

Taken from:
http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/spaceweather.htm

21st Century Problems (Global Warming)

Global warming
Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Coal-burning power plants are the largest U.S. source of carbon dioxide pollution -- they produce 2.5 billion tons every year. Automobiles, the second largest source, create nearly 1.5 billion tons of CO2 annually. Technologies exist today to make cars that run cleaner and burn less gas, modernise power plants and generate electricity from nonpolluting sources, and cut our electricity use through energy efficiency. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use.
Taken from:http:                                                                                           //www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/

21st Century Problems (World Hunger)

World hunger
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that nearly 870 million people of the 7.1 billion people in the world, or one in eight, were suffering from chronic undernourishment in 2010-2012. Almost all the hungry people, 852 million, live in developing countries, representing 15 percent of the population of developing counties. There are 16 million people undernourished in developed countries
The number of undernourished people decreased nearly 30 percent in Asia and the Pacific, from 739 million to 563 million, largely due to socio-economic progress in many countries in the region. The prevalence of undernourishment in the region decreased from 23.7 percent to 13.9 percent.
Latin America and the Caribbean also made progress, falling from 65 million hungry in 1990-1992 to 49 million in 2010-2012, while the prevalence of undernourishment dipped from 14.6 percent to 8.3 percent. But the rate of progress has slowed recently.
The number of hungry grew in Africa over the period, from 175 million to 239 million, with nearly 20 million added  in the last few years. Nearly one in four are  hungry. And in sub-Saharan Africa, the modest progress achieved in recent years up to 2007 was reversed, with hunger rising 2 percent per year since then.
Developed regions also saw the number of hungry rise, from 13 million in 2004-2006 to 16 million in 2010-2012, reversing a steady decrease in previous years from 20 million in 1990-1992

Taken from: http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm